예약금없는출장샵
  • 김포남양주 마사지
  • 카지노사이트
  • 광주출장샵
  • 목포마사지 알바
  • 김포출장샵┯24시출장샵░김포압구정 마사지﹝김포마사지 몰카﹞●﹝김포용원 마사지﹞↼김포카톡 조건╖김포안마방 팁╓김포포항 타이마사지的김포kcm 안마방♘김포옥계 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    온라인카지노
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    김포출장샵∷예약⇠김포압구정 마사지﹝김포안마방 몰카 torrent﹞ω﹝김포양산 마사지﹞◦김포렉시벨 마사지☀김포엄마와 딸 마사지❖김포철산 안마방↚김포두통 완화 마사지↪김포송탄 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 목포마사지 강좌 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    김포출장샵☲예약금없는출장샵↺김포압구정 마사지﹝김포태국 마사지 썰﹞§﹝김포백석동 마사지﹞→김포마사지 맛사지↩김포코타키나발루 마사지♩김포전국 안마방╔김포운서동 안마방♩김포태국 마사지 토렌트

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    김포출장샵☜예약금없는출장샵➼김포압구정 마사지﹝김포마사지 gif﹞◥﹝김포평촌 마사지﹞♣김포행신 안마방◑김포안마방 분수╦김포안면 비대칭 마사지↪김포주안 모텔 추천ハ김포여성전용 마사지 후기

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 대전출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    김포출장샵♐24시출장샵☃김포압구정 마사지﹝김포송탄 안마방﹞╔﹝김포울산 동구 마사지﹞┧김포양재 안마방♈김포정왕동 마사지╟김포출장서비스↘김포안마방 누드╛김포논현 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 평택마사지방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    김포출장샵┷출장부르는법▧김포압구정 마사지﹝김포상봉역 안마방﹞♞﹝김포마사지 ㅅㅅ﹞▤김포일본 마사지⊙김포쥬니공주 안마방→김포왕십리 마사지☇김포거제 옥포 안마방✿김포건식 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    김포출장샵김포출장 오피

  • 군산익산 모텔 추천
  • 김포천안 안마방
  • 김포출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    김포출장샵♣출장부르는법✲김포압구정 마사지﹝김포안마방 여자친구﹞►﹝김포남자 출장 마사지﹞│김포스즈 하라 에미리 마사지⇜김포마송 여관╝김포마사지 토렌트☌김포일본 마사지 노모◈김포방이동 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 영동안마방 영어로 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 원주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    바카라사이트
    울산손가락 마사지 온라인카지노 통영타이 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 천안출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    김포출장샵⇚24시출장샵1김포압구정 마사지﹝김포마사지 정보﹞↺﹝김포정왕동 마사지﹞⊙김포여관 아가씨╉김포가경동 안마방⇚김포마포 마사지♞김포마사지╳김포마사지 하다가

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 곡성트레이너 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    김포출장샵╚24시출장샵♂김포압구정 마사지﹝김포울란바토르 마사지﹞☢﹝김포척추 마사지﹞⊙김포안마방 커뮤니티│김포마송 안마방◎김포속초 안마방↑김포쿤타이 마사지⇚김포목포 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    울산광주 안마방 후기
    동두천안마방 카드결제 dkevent.xyz 김해응암동 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    김포출장샵♣예약╳김포압구정 마사지﹝김포남부터미널 안마방﹞♥﹝김포안산 조건 만남﹞↩김포전민동 마사지❖김포제주시 연동 마사지▒김포출장연애인급╛김포엘프 마사지▫김포삼산동 출장

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 온라인카지노 .

    김포출장샵☈24시출장샵⇠김포압구정 마사지﹝김포서울 안마방﹞♞﹝김포여주 안마방﹞┥김포조건 카페↕김포마사지 관리사ネ김포춘천 태국 마사지╝김포하노이 vip 마사지ⓥ김포계룡시 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 안산전주 안마방 가격 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    김포출장샵♥24시출장샵╀김포압구정 마사지﹝김포대구 여관﹞╧﹝김포유방 마사지﹞ω김포양재역 마사지✖김포여자 마사지┄김포의정부 모텔 가격░김포서산시 안마방⊿김포콜걸 후기

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    김포출장샵0예약⇅김포압구정 마사지﹝김포햄스터 마사지﹞○﹝김포수안보 마사지﹞⇣김포고주파 마사지┸김포태국 출장 마사지↦김포광교 마사지┙김포안마방 가격☽김포안마방 시간제

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 정읍안마방 신고 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The jasonboy.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 바카라사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 아산천안 출장 만남 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 수원출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    김포출장샵↕예약⇉김포압구정 마사지﹝김포흥출장안마﹞⇩﹝김포김포 마사지﹞§김포발리 마사지❤김포스웨디시 마사지 후기❈김포안마방 서울◘김포타이 마사지 썰√김포쿤타이 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 전주출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 창원출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 광주출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    김포출장샵↤출장부르는법★김포압구정 마사지﹝김포원룸 출장﹞☝﹝김포대림동 마사지﹞㊣김포출장가격➻김포오일 마사지►김포대구 출장마사지➺김포건전 마사지囍김포베트남 마사지 가격

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    경상북도국산 마사지
    평택출장샵 익산손목터널증후군 마사지 포항출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    김포출장샵1예약금없는출장샵▶김포압구정 마사지﹝김포진주 오피﹞┝﹝김포출장 만남 보증금﹞☪김포송파 마사지↗김포일산 마사지▷김포부산 모텔 출장┊김포실제 일본 안마방▶김포출장외국인

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.김포출장샵김포귀 마사지↹김포뱃살 마사지▨﹝김포전립선 마사지 후기﹞김포군산 마사지↖김포안마방 예약☳김포중국 마사지 후기☢김포마사지 검색♥온라인카지노예약김포출장 만남 대행╠ 김포뒷목 마사지╤[김포안마방 누드]김포간석오거리 안마방↺김포대전 황궁 마사지↴김포안마방 혼자⇛김포야탑 마사지✯김포출장샵완주유성 안마방김포마사지방│김포캄보디아 마사지►<김포마사지 토렌트>김포다낭 마사지 가격╪김포합성동 안마방☣김포대구 모텔 아가씨╩김포안양 마사지↤김포안마방 왕가슴녀⊙김포휴게텔 안마방 차이┌‹김포안마방 청룡열차›김포월곶 마사지↺김포정왕동 안마방⇢김포여관 다방γ김포싸인볼 마사지⊙김포구글재펜⇩김포광주 마사지♂{김포영통 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ}김포광주 스타 안마방ソ김포아줌마 안마방⇀김포올탈 마사지☞김포호텔 출장◦김포서울 출장 마사지⇩김포항문 마사지ツ「김포안마방 영업시간」김포영등포역 안마방╀김포안마방 알바 구하는법♦김포국노 torrentⓞ김포부산 해운대 안마방✂24시출장샵양양출장 만남 대행예약금없는출장샵김포수원역 마사지⊙김포야동 안마방┅《김포테크노폴리스 마사지》김포카톡 조건✲김포눈붓기빼는 마사지▤김포미아 안마방➳김포출장시チ김포출장샵김포출장샵창원출장안마김포경성대 마사지김포출장마사지샵김포충주 마사지김포광주 안마방김포출장샵김포안마방 알바 벌금╦김포유성 안마방 후기↖『김포시각장애인 마사지』김포타이 아로마 마사지♯김포lovegom☠김포마사지 공떡♩김포마사지 효과┪영주유성 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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